THE SUMERIAN KING LIST

1. HISTORICAL BACKGROUND AND THE FIRST RECORDED KINGS

The period of early high civilization ca. 3200-2700 Before Common Era can be subdivided into three perios based on development in architecture, pottery, seals and writing: the Late Uruk (ca. 3200-3000 BCE), Jemdet Nasr (ca. 3000-2900 BCE) and Early Dynastic I , II and III(ca. 2900-2350 BCE) periods.

The Sumerian King List, written early in the second millennium Before Common Era, supplied the names of the king along with the lengths of their reigns, dynasty by dynasty, and concluded with the well-known rules of the Third Dynasty of Ur and their successors at Isin. This chronological framework provided the barest outline of the political history of Sumer and Akkad after prehistoric times. Kingship was considered na institution devised by the gods for human life. Eridu was the most ancient settlement being inhabited continuously into Sumerian times and the oldest center of Sumerian civilization. The Sumerian King List treated overlapping contemporaneous dynasties as successive. Historically, no king extended his rule beyond his city-estate until the Akkadians came to power.

In the Sumerian King List, before the flood referred to protohistoric time, and after the flood to fully historic time. The antediluvian part of the Sumerian King List has often been equated with the early Dynastic I period, the only source of information for this period. After the flood had swept over the land and kingship had descended from heaven, Kish became the seat of kingship. Afterwards, kingship passed from Kish to Uruk. Some kings of Kish and Uruk listed in the Sumerian King List were also mentioned in Sumerian and Akkadian myths and legends, such as Enmerkar, Lugalbanda, Dumuzi, Gilgamesh and Etana. The next dynasty of the Sumerian King List was Ur, under king Mesannepada, also identified from inscriptions. His father, Meskalamdug, king of Kish, left two inscriptions in graves in the Royal Cemetery of Ur.

Early Dynastic Sumer was a loose-knit confederation of small city-states whose relationships with one another varied from vassalage to equality, but never unity. There was no natural center; even Nippur, the religious center (and geographical center of Sumer and Akkad) exercised no political power. Each city-state consisted of na urban center and its population and the dependent populations of the undeveloped areas of land around it.

Each city-state was a politically independent unit with its own ruler. Sumer and Akkad each consisted of about a dozen city-states near each other along the branches of the Euphrates and Tigris. Early Dynastic incriptions were full of references to battle between city-states. The massive walls built by most Sumerian cities suggest a strong secular authority ready for military action. Inscriptions from the early Dynastic Period have shown the Sumerian King List to be incomplete. The rulers of some city-states, such as Lagash, were excluded. Even Mesilim (ca. 2550 BCE), the king of Kish, did not appear in the king list. Mesilim was foamous for drawing the border between Umma and Lagash, a contentious point between these two cities. His decision, accepted by both parties, appeared to favor Lagash over Umma. The land later passed into the hands of the Ummaites, until Eanatum of Lagash (ca. 2450 BCE) conquered them and made a new border treaty with the ensi (city ruler) of Umma.

Eannatum conquered Elam and teh southern cities of Sumer. He now felt powerful enough to asume the title King of Kish, which implied rule over all of Sumer. Eannatum claimed to have defeated Umma, Uruk, Ur, Akshak, Mari, Susa, Elam, several districts probably in the Iranian Zagros, and SIN Northern Mesopotamia. Umma, economically and militarily stronger than lagash was ordinarily the aggressor. Eventually, the ensi of Umma liberated himself from povincial fixation with the Lagash boundary by concluding a nonaggression pact with Entemena (2404-2375 BEC) and establishing a kind of union over all Sumer.

In Lagash, Entemena was succeeded by a series of short-lived rulers until Uru-inimgina (2351-2341) was chosen from 3600 persons by Ningirsu, na ancient idiom used to mean that he was a usurper. Uru-inimgina was praised for his social and ethical reforms rather than his military exploits. During Uru-inimgina ´s reign, Lugalzagesi (ca. 2340 BCE) na ambitious Ensi from Umma, burned, plundered and destroyed practically all the holy places of Lagash. Uru-inimgina offered little resistance. Lugalzagesi claimed that he unifed Sumer and controlled the trade routes from the Mediterranean to the Persian Gulf. Lugalzagesi was soon defeated by Sargon (2334-2279 BCE), a Semite and founder of the powerful Dynasty of Akkad. 

About 2900 Before Common Era, large numbers of people with Semitic names settled in cities such as Kish in Akkad. Gradually, this Semitic-speaking group, identified as Amorites, adopted the urban lifestyle of the Sumerians and eventually, the Amorites rose to positions of political power, including kingship.

 

2. RISE AND FALL OF THE AKKADIAN DYNASTY

Sargon the Great (2334-2279 Before Common Era) as he is called by modern historians, was a brilliant military leader as well as a very innovative administrator. Sargon was the first king to unite all of Mesopotamia under one ruler, and the Akkadian empire became a prototype for later kings. Sargon began his career asa high official, cupbearer (similar to treasurer) to a Sumerian king of Kish called Ur-Zababa. Lugalzagesi either dethroned or killed king Ur-Zababa before beginning a series of conquests. Sargon launched a surprise attack against Lugalzagesi´s capital Uruk and destroyed its walls.

Sargon continued his conquests on the way to the Persian Gulf. On the way back, he completed his conquest of southern Sumer. Sargon then turned west and north and conquered the lands of Mari, Yarmuti, and Ebla up to the Cedar Forest (Amanus Mountains) and the Silver Mountain (Taurus Mountain), and in the East Elam and neighbouring Barakhshi. Wnen Sargon conquered city-sttes, he destroyed their walls so that potential rebels were deprived of strongholds. If the Ensi was willing to shift his allegiance to Sargon, Sargon kept the old administration in office; otherwise, he filled governorships with his own citizens. In this way, he encouraged the collapse of the old city-state system and moved toward centralized government. Sargon istalled military garrisons at key positions to manage his vast empire and ensure the uninterrupted flow of tribute. He was the first king to have a standign army. Sargon built the capital city of Akkad, which soon beame one of the wealthiest and most magnificent cities of the ancient world. Its exact location remains unknown., but Akkad gave its name to the dynasty and to the language.

Sargon was first succeeded by his son, Rimush (2278-2270 Before Common Era), who inherited the empire, now torn by revolts. In battles involving tens of thousands of troops, Rimush reconquered cities and coutries of the empire. His inscriptions listed the total number of victims captured, killed, or massacred as 54,016. Rimush was followed by his older brother, perhaps his twin, Maishtushu (2269-2255 Before Common Era), who followed a military and political plan similar to his brothers. Both were killed by members of their court. Manishtushu was succeeded by his son, Naram-Sin (2254-2218), whose military victories were numerous. To proclaim his conquests, Naram-Sim added "king of the four quarters" to his list of titles and even deified himself as the "god of Akkad".

Then disaster struck. The Gutians invaded. The Gutians were a ruthless, barbaric horde from the mountains of the East. The historiographic poem the Curse of Agade: the Ekur Avenged vividly depicted Akkad before and after its downfall. The destruction of Akkad was attributed to Naram-Sin´s sacking of Nippur and desecration of Enlil´s sanctuary. Famine descended on Summer and this led to inflation. Situation became desperate and the gods cursed Akkad, the city then being abandoned forever. Naram-Sin´s son, Shar-kali-sharri (2217-2193 Before Common Era) tried to reverse some of his father´s policies, but it was too late. The kingdom was reduced to the city of Akkad and the surrounding area. The Sumerian king list described his reign as followed by a period of anarchy:"who was king? Who was not king?"

Sargon´s empire lasted just over a century. Its final collapse was prompted by the invasion of a people from the Zagros mountains who disrupted trade and ruined the irrigation system. But, all in all, its downfall was due to to its intrinsic instability.

Litlle is known about the various Uruk dynasties until the last one, Utu-khegal (2123-2113 Before Common Era), who was appointed by Enlil, the chief God of Sumer, to rid the country of the barbaric Gutians. When a new Gutian king ascended to throne, Utu-khegal struck and was victorious. He restored southern Mesopotamia politically and economically from the state of almost complete paralysis caused by the Gutian invasions. The Gutians, nevertheless, assimilated the Sumerian way of life, and became the dominant political group in the century following Shar-kali-sharris´death. Gudea (ca. 2144-2121 Before Common Era), Ensi of Lagash, came to power. His statues, some almost life-sized, bore long inscriptions recording his religious activities in building and rebuilding Lagash´s more important temples. He traded with almost the entire civilized world of antiquity.

3. THE NEO-SUMERIAN RENAISSANCE OR THE THIRD DYNASTY OF UR

Despite a resounding victory, Utu-khegal´s power over Sumer lasted only tem years. His throne was usurped by Ur-Nammu (2112-2095 BCE), one of his more ambitious governors. Ur-Nammu established the last important Sumerian Dynasty, called the Third Dynasty of Ur, or Ur III. Ur-Nammu was a talented military leader and a magistral administrator. He also promulgated the first law code in recorded history.

Ur-Nammu established na effective centralized administrative system in which cities were managed by subservient provincial governors, ensis, appointed by the king. Ur-Nammu may have expanded his control over bordering lands, because "he straightened the highways from the lands below and the lands above." Early in his reign, he established a registry for ships trading with Magan in order to ensure their safety fro marauders in the Southern marshes.

Ur-Nammu died in battle with the Gutians, who continued to plague Sumer throughout the III Dynasty of Ur. Death in battle was not common for a pious king. A hymn described the return of Ur-Nammu´s body to Ur for a grandiose burial and gave details of the Sumerian view of the Netherworld.

He was succeeded by his son, Shulgi (2094-2047 Before Common Era), who started a major reorganization of the Ur III state and enalrged his empire. The king appointed military personnel to rule outlying provinces. Near the end of Shulgi´s reign, a new threat from nomadic tribes from the west, came to loot and attack the land. Shulgi builds then a wall to protect the boundaries of his reign. His actions were also motivated by economic concers; he was anxious to expand the northeastern trade routes, which afforded access to lapis lazuli and tin (for the manufacture of bronze.

Shulgi was succeeded by two of his sons, Amar-Sin (2046-2038 Before Common Era) and Shu-Sin (2037-2029 Before Common Era),; each was deified upon ascending the throne. Shulgi´s son and successor died of the bite of a shoe, probaby a poisoned foot. During Shu-Sin´s reign, the Amorites from the Syrian and the Arabian deserts made their first major raid. The king built a defensive wall.

In the twenty-first century BCE, during the Ur III period, texts from Umma and Lagash protrayed the Amorites as completely assimilated into Mesopotamian socieity and customs, adopting local customs and forsaking tribal customs. Neo-Sumerian literary texts painted a totally different picture of the Amorites, describing them as unassimilated tent dwellers, unfamiliar with grain or cooked meat, not knowing how to bury their dead, etc.

Shu-Sin´s inscriptions predicted the disasters that would befall his son and successor. Ibbi-Sin (2028-2004 BCE). The combined threat of invasions from the Amorites and Elamites proved the undoing of Ibbi-Sin, and led to the collapse of the empire.

Though the Elamites besieged Ur, they could not capture it. But as time passed, famine overtook the city defenders. In desperation, they unlocked the city gates and the Elamites brutally slaughtered everybody and ransacked homes and temples. The Lamentation over the Destruction of Ur recorded this tragedy.

The Third Dynasty of Ur lasted about a century (ca. 2111-2004 BCE). Once again Mesopotamia became divided into city-states under separate rulers. The Empire was no longer centralized.

THE SUMERIAN KING LIST.

Source : Black, J.A., Cunningham, G., Robson, E., and Zólyomi, G., The Electronic Text Corpus of Sumerian Literature (http://www-etcsl.orient.ox.ac.uk/). Oxford 1998- .Copyright © J.A. Black, G. Cunningham, E. Robson, and G. Zólyomi 1998, 1999, 2000. The authors have asserted their moral rights. Text reproduced here as as aid for research and studies only.All rights reserved to authors.

 (In the following translation, mss. are referred to by the sigla used by Vincente 1995; from those listed there, mss. Fi, Go, P6, and WB 62 were not used; if not specified by a note, numerical data come from ms. WB.)

1-39After the kingship descended from heaven, the kingship was in Eridug. In Eridug, Alulim became king; he ruled for 28800 years. Alaljar ruled for 36000 years. 2 kings; they ruled for 64800 years. Then Eridug fell and the kingship was taken to Bad-tibira. In Bad-tibira, En-men-lu-ana ruled for 43200 years. En-men-gal-ana ruled for 28800 years. Dumuzid, the shepherd, ruled for 36000 years. 3 kings; they ruled for 108000 years. Then Bad-tibira fell (?) and the kingship was taken to Larag. In Larag, En-sipad-zid-ana ruled for 28800 years. 1 king; he ruled for 28800 years. Then Larag fell (?) and the kingship was taken to Zimbir. In Zimbir, En-men-dur-ana became king; he ruled for 21000 years. 1 king; he ruled for 21000 years. Then Zimbir fell (?) and the kingship was taken to Curuppag. In Curuppag, Ubara-Tutu became king; he ruled for 18600 years. 1 king; he ruled for 18600 years. In 5 cities 8 kings; they ruled for 241200 years. Then the flood swept over.

40-94After the flood had swept over, and the kingship had descended from heaven, the kingship was in Kic. In Kic, Jucur became king; he ruled for 1200 years. Kullassina-bel ruled for 960 (ms. P2+L2 has instead: 900) years. Nanjiclicma ruled for (ms. P2+L2 has:) 670 (?) years. En-tarah-ana ruled for (ms. P2+L2 has:) 420 years ......, 3 months, and 3 1/2 days. Babum ...... ruled for (ms. P2+L2 has:) 300 years. Puannum ruled for 840 (ms. P2+L2 has instead: 240) years. Kalibum ruled for 960 (ms. P2+L2 has instead: 900) years. Kalumum ruled for 840 (mss. P3+BT14, Su1 have instead: 900) years. Zuqaqip ruled for 900 (ms. Su1 has instead: 600) years. (In mss. P2+L2, P3+BT14, P5, the 10th and 11th rulers of the dynasty precede the 8th and 9th.) Atab (mss. P2+L2, P3+BT14, P5 have instead: Aba) ruled for 600 years. Macda, the son of Atab, ruled for 840 (ms. Su1 has instead: 720) years. Arwium, the son of Macda, ruled for 720 years. Etana, the shepherd, who ascended to heaven and consolidated all the foreign countries, became king; he ruled for 1500 (ms. P2+L2 has instead: 635) years. Balih, the son of Etana, ruled for 400 (mss. P2+L2, Su1 have instead: 410) years. En-me-nuna ruled for 660 (ms. P2+L2 has instead: 621) years. Melem-Kic, the son of En-me-nuna, ruled for 900 years. (ms. P3+BT14 adds:) 1560 are the years of the dynasty of En-me-nuna . Barsal-nuna, the son of En-me-nuna, (mss. P5, P3+BT14 have instead: Barsal-nuna) ruled for 1200 years. Zamug, the son of Barsal-nuna, ruled for 140 years. Tizqar, the son of Zamug, ruled for 305 years. (ms. P3+BT14 adds:) 1620 + X ....... Ilku ruled for 900 years. Iltasadum ruled for 1200 years. En-men-barage-si, who made the land of Elam submit, became king; he ruled for 900 years. Aga, the son of En-men-barage-si, ruled for 625 years. (ms. P3+BT14 adds:) 1525 are the years of the dynasty of En-men-barage-si. 23 kings; they ruled for 24510 years, 3 months, and 3 1/2 days. Then Kic was defeated and the kingship was taken to E-ana.

95-133In E-ana, Mec-ki-aj-gacer, the son of Utu, became lord and king; he ruled for 324 (ms. P2+L2 has instead: 325) years. Mec-ki-aj-gacer entered the sea and disappeared. Enmerkar, the son of Mec-ki-aj-gacer, the king of Unug, who built Unug (mss. L1+N1, P2+L2 have instead: under whom Unug was built), became king; he ruled for 420 (ms. TL has instead: 900 + X) years. (ms. P3+BT14 adds:) 745 are the years of the dynasty of Mec-ki-aj-gacer. (ms TL adds instead: ......; he ruled for 5 + X years.) Lugalbanda, the shepherd, ruled for 1200 years. Dumuzid, the fisherman, whose city was Kuara, ruled for 100 (ms. TL has instead: 110) years. (ms. P3+BT14 adds:) He captured En-me-barage-si single-handed. Gilgamec, whose father was a phantom (?), the lord of Kulaba, ruled for 126 years. Ur-Nungal, the son of Gilgamec, ruled for 30 years. Udul-kalama, the son of Ur-Nungal (ms. Su1 has instead: Ur-lugal), ruled for 15 years. La-ba'cum ruled for 9 years. En-nun-tarah-ana ruled for 8 years. Mec-he, the smith, ruled for 36 years. Melem-ana (ms. Su2 has instead: Til-kug (?) ......) ruled for 6 (ms. Su2 has instead: 900) years. Lugal-kitun (?) ruled for 36 (ms. Su2 has instead: 420) years. 12 kings; they ruled for 2310 (ms. Su2 has instead: 3588) years. Then Unug was defeated and the kingship was taken to Urim.

134-147In Urim, Mec-Ane-pada became king; he ruled for 80 years. Mec-ki-aj-Nanna (ms. P2+L2 has instead: Mec-ki-aj-nuna), the son of Mec-Ane-pada, became king; he ruled for 36 (ms. P2+L2 has instead: 30) years. Elulu ruled for (mss. L1+N1, P2+L2, P3+BT14 have:) 25 years. Balulu ruled for (mss. L1+N1, P2+L2, P3+BT14 have:) 36 years. (mss. L1+N1, P2+L2 have:) 4 kings; they ruled for (mss. L1+N1, P2+L2, P3+BT14 have:) 171 years. Then Urim was defeated and the kingship was taken to Awan.

148-159In Awan, ...... became king; he ruled for ...... years. ...... ruled for ...... years. ...... ruled for 36 years. 3 kings; they ruled for 356 years. Then Awan was defeated and the kingship was taken to Kic.

160-178In Kic, Susuda, the fuller, became king; he ruled for 201 + X years. Dadasig ruled for (ms. vD has:) 81 years. Mamagal, the boatman, ruled for 360 (ms. L1+N1 has instead: 420) years. Kalbum, the son of Mamagal (ms. WB has instead: Magalgal), ruled for 195 (ms. L1+N1 has instead: 132) years. Tuge (?) ruled for 360 years. Men-nuna, (ms. L1+N1 adds:) the son of Tuge (?), ruled for 180 years. (in mss. L1+N1, TL, the 7th and 8th rulers of the dynasty are in reverse order) ...... ruled for 290 years. Lugalju ruled for 360 (ms. L1+N1 has instead: 420) years. 8 kings; they ruled for 3195 (ms. L1+N1 has instead: 3792) years. Then Kic was defeated and the kingship was taken to Hamazi.

179-185In Hamazi, Hadanic became king; he ruled for 360 years. 1 king; he ruled for 360 years. Then Hamazi was defeated and the kingship was taken (ms. P3+BT14 has instead: was returned a second time) to Unug.

(In mss. IB, L1+N1, TL, the 2nd dynasty of Unug of ll. 185-191 is preceded by the 2nd dynasty of Urim of ll. 192-203.)

186-192In Unug, En-cakanca-ana became king; he ruled for 60 years. Lugal-ure (ms. P3+BT14 has instead: Lugal-kinice-dudu (?)) ruled for 120 years. Argandea ruled for 7 years. (ms. L1+N1 has:) 3 kings; they ruled for (ms. L1+N1 has:) 187 years. Then Unug was defeated (ms. TL has instead: destroyed) and the kingship was taken to Urim.

193-204In Urim, Nani became king; he ruled for (ms. vD has:) 120 + X (ms. IB has instead: 54 + X) years. Mec-ki-aj-Nanna, the son of Nani, ruled for (ms. vD has:) 48 years. ......, the son (?) of ......, ruled for (ms. IB has:) 2 years. (ms. IB has:) 3 kings; they ruled for (ms. IB has:) 582 (ms. TL has instead: 578) years. (ms. vD has instead: 2 kings; they ruled for 120 + X years.) Then Urim was defeated (ms. TL has instead: destroyed) and the kingship was taken to Adab.

205-210In Adab, Lugal-Ane-mundu became king; he ruled for (mss. L1+N1, TL have:) 90 years. (mss. L1+N1, TL have:) 1 king; he ruled for (mss. L1+N1, TL have:) 90 years. Then Adab was defeated (ms. TL has instead: destroyed) and the kingship was taken to Mari.

211-223In Mari, Anbu (?) became king; he ruled for 30 (ms. TL has instead: 90) years. Anba (?), the son of Anbu (?), ruled for 17 (ms. TL has instead: 7) years. Bazi, the leatherworker, ruled for 30 years. Zizi, the fuller, ruled for 20 years. Limer, the gudu priest, ruled for 30 years. Carrum-iter ruled for 9 (ms. TL has instead: 7) years. 6 kings; they ruled for 136 (ms. TL has instead: 184) years. Then Mari was defeated (ms. TL has instead: destroyed) and the kingship was taken to Kic.

24-231In Kic, Kug-Bau, the woman tavern-keeper, who made firm the foundations of Kic, became king; she ruled for 100 years. 1 king; she ruled for 100 years. Then Kic was defeated (ms. TL has instead: destroyed) and the kingship was taken to Akcak.

232-243In Akcak, Unzi became king; he ruled for 30 years. Undalulu ruled for 6 (mss. L1+N1, S have instead: 12) years. Urur ruled for (ms. IB has instead: was king (?) for) 6 years. Puzur-Nirah ruled for (mss. IB, L1+N1, S, Su1 have:) 20 years. Icu-Il ruled for (mss. IB, L1+N1, S, Su1 have:) 24 years. Cu-Suen, the son of Icu-Il, ruled for (mss. IB, L1+N1, S, TL have:) 7 (ms. Su1 has instead: 24) years. (mss. S, Su1, TL have:) 6 kings; they ruled for (mss. L1+N1, S, TL have:) 99 (ms. Su1 has instead: 116) years (ms. IB has instead: 5 kings; they ruled for (ms. IB has:) 87 years). Then Akcak was defeated (ms. S has instead: Then the reign of Akcak was abolished) and the kingship was taken to Kic.

(mss. IB, S, Su1, Su3+Su4 list the 3rd and 4th dynasty of Kic of ll. 224-231 and ll. 244-258, respectively, as one dynasty)

244-258In Kic, Puzur-Suen, the son of Kug-Bau, became king; he ruled for 25 years. Ur-Zababa, the son of Puzur-Suen, ruled for 400 (mss. P3+BT14, S have instead: 6) (ms. IB has instead: 4 + X) years. (ms. P3+BT14 adds:) 131 are the years of the dynasty of Kug-Bau. Zimudar (ms. TL has instead: Ziju-iake) ruled for 30 (ms. IB has instead: 30 + X) years. Uß„i-watar, the son of Zimudar (ms. TL has instead: Ziju-iake), ruled for 7 (ms. S has instead: 6) years. Ectar-muti ruled for 11 (ms. Su1 has instead: 17 (?)) years. Icme-Camac ruled for 11 years. (ms. Su1 adds:) Cu-ilicu ruled for 15 years. Nanniya, the jeweller, (ms. Su1 has instead: Zimudar) (ms. IB has instead: ......) ruled for 7 (ms. S has instead: 3) years. 7 kings; they ruled for 491 (ms. Su1 has instead: 485) years (ms. S has instead: 8 kings; they ruled for (ms. S has:) 586 years). Then Kic was defeated (ms. S has instead: Then the reign of Kic was abolished) and the kingship was taken (ms. P3+BT14 has instead: was returned a third time) to Unug.

(ms. IB omits the 3rd dynasty of Unug of ll. 258-263)

59-265In Unug, Lugal-zage-si became king; he ruled for 25 (ms. P3+BT14 has instead: 34) years. 1 king; he ruled for 25 (ms. P3+BT14 has instead: 34) years. Then Unug was defeated (ms. S has instead: Then the reign of Unug was abolished) and the kingship was taken to Agade.

266-296In Agade, Sargon, whose father was a gardener, the cupbearer of Ur-Zababa, became king, the king of Agade, who built Agade (ms. L1+N1 has instead: under whom Agade was built); he ruled for 56 (ms. L1+N1 has instead: 55) (ms. TL has instead: 54) years. Rimuc, the son of Sargon, ruled for 9 (ms. IB has instead: 7) (ms. L1+N1 has instead: 15) years. Man-icticcu, the older brother of Rimuc, the son of Sargon, ruled for 15 (ms. L1+N1 has instead: 7) years. Naram-Suen, the son of Man-icticcu, ruled for (mss. L1+N1, P3+BT14 have:) 56 years. Car-kali-carri, the son of Naram-Suen, ruled for (ms. L1+N1, Su+Su4 have:) 25 (ms. P3+BT14 has instead: 24) years. (ms. P3+BT14 adds:) 157 are the years of the dynasty of Sargon. Then who was king? Who was the king? (ms. Su3+Su4 has instead: who was king? Who indeed was king?) Irgigi was king, Imi was king, Nanûm was king (in mss. L1+N1, Su3+Su4, Imi and Nanûm are in reverse order) , Ilulu was king, and the (mss. P3+BT14, S have:) 4 of them ruled for only (mss. P3+BT14, S have:) 3 years. Dudu ruled for 21 years. Cu-Durul, the son of Dudu, ruled for 15 (ms. IB has instead: 18) years. 11 kings; they ruled for 181 years (ms. S has instead: 12 kings; they ruled for (ms. S has:) 197 years) (mss. Su1, Su3+Su4, which omit Dudu and Cu-Durul, have instead: 9 kings; they ruled for (ms. Su1 has:) 161 (ms. Su3+Su4 has instead: 177) years. Then Agade was defeated (ms. S has instead: Then the reign of Agade was abolished) and the kingship was taken to Unug.

297-307In Unug, Ur-nijin became king; he ruled for 7 (mss. IB, S have instead: 3) (ms. Su1 has instead: 15) (ms. Su3+Su4 has instead: 30) years. Ur-gigir, the son of Ur-nijin, ruled for 6 (ms. IB has instead: 7) (ms. Su1 has instead: 15) (ms. Su3+Su4 has instead: 7) years. Kuda ruled for 6 years. Puzur-ili ruled for 5 (ms. IB has instead: 20) years. Ur-Utu ruled for 6 (ms. Su3+Su4 has instead: Ur-Utu), the son of Ur-gigir, ruled for 25 (ms. Su1 has instead: Lugal-melem, the son of Ur-gigir, ruled for 7) years. 5 kings; they ruled for 30 (ms. IB has instead: 43) (mss. Pð+Ha, S have instead: 26) years (ms. Su3+Su4, which omits Kuda and Puzur-ili, has instead: 3 kings; they ruled for (ms. Su3+Su4 has:) 47 years). Unug was defeated (ms. S has instead: Then the reign of Unug was abolished) and the kingship was taken to the army (ms. Su3+Su4 has instead: land) of Gutium.

308-334In the army (ms. Su3+Su4 has instead: land) of Gutium, at first no king was famous; they were their own kings and ruled thus for 3 years (ms. L1+N1 has instead: they had no king; they ruled themselves for 5 years). Then Inkicuc (ms. Su3+Su4 has instead: ......) ruled for 6 (ms. L1+Ni1 has instead: 7) years. Zarlagab ruled for 6 years. Culme (ms. L1+N1 has instead: Yarlagac) ruled for 6 years. Silulumec (ms. Mi has instead: Silulu) ruled for 6 (ms. G has instead: 7) years. Inimabakec ruled for 5 (ms. Mi has instead: Duga ruled for 6) years. Igecauc ruled for 6 (ms. Mi has instead: Ilu-an (?) ruled for 3) years. Yarlagab ruled for 15 (ms. Mi has instead: 5) years. Ibate ruled for 3 years. Yarla (ms. L1+N1 has instead: Yarlangab (?)) ruled for 3 years. Kurum (ms. L1+N1 has instead: ......) ruled for 1 (ms. Mi has instead: 3) years. Apil-kin ruled for 3 years. La-erabum (?) ruled for 2 years. Irarum ruled for 2 years. Ibranum ruled for 1 year. Hablum ruled for 2 years. Puzur-Suen, the son of Hablum, ruled for 7 years. Yarlaganda ruled for 7 years. ...... ruled for 7 years. Tiriga (?) ruled for 40 days. 21 kings; they ruled for (ms. L1+N1 has:) 124 years and 40 days (ms. Su3+Su4 has instead: 25 years). Then the army of Gutium was defeated (ms. TL has instead: destroyed) and the kingship was taken to Unug.

335-340In Unug, Utu-hejal became king; he ruled for 427 years, ...... days (ms. IB has instead: 26 years, 2 + X months, and 15 days) (ms. J has instead: 7 years, 6 months, and 15 days) (ms. TL has instead: 7 years, 6 months, and 5 days). 1 king; he ruled for 427 years, ...... days (ms. J has instead: 7 years, 6 months, and 15 days) (ms. TL has instead: 7 years, 6 months, and 5 days). Then Unug was defeated and the kingship was taken to Urim.

341-354In Urim, Ur-Namma became king; he ruled for 18 years. Culgi, the son of Ur-Namma, ruled for 46 (mss. Su3+Su4, TL have instead: 48) (ms. P5 has instead: 58) years. Amar-Suena, the son of Culgi, ruled for 9 (ms. Su3+Su4 has instead: 25) years. Cu-Suen, the son of Amar-Suena, ruled for 9 (ms. P5 has instead: 7) (ms. Su1 has instead: 20 + X) (ms. Su3+Su4 has instead: 16) years. Ibbi-Suen, the son of Cu-Suen, ruled for 24 (mss. P5, Su1 have instead: 25) (ms. Su3+Su4 has instead: 15) (ms. TL has instead: 23 (?)) years. 4 kings; they ruled for 108 years (mss. J, P5, Su1, Su3+Su4 have instead: 5 kings; they ruled for (ms. P5 has:) 117 (ms. Su1 has instead: 120 + X) (ms. Su3+Su4 has instead: 123) years). Then Urim was defeated (ms. P5 has instead: Then the reign of Urim was abolished). (ms. Su3+Su4 adds:) The very foundation of Sumer was torn out (?). The kingship was taken to Isin.

355-3779 Isin, Icbi-Erra became king; he ruled for 33 (ms. P5 has instead: 32) years. Cu-ilicu, the son of Icbi-Erra, ruled for 20 (ms. P5 has instead: 10) (ms. Su1 has instead: 15) years. Iddin-Dagan, the son of Cu-ilicu, ruled for 21 (ms. Su1 has instead: 25) years. Icme-Dagan, the son of Iddin-Dagan, ruled for (mss. P2, P5 have:) 20 (ms. Mi has instead: 18) years. Lipit-Ectar, the son of Icme-Dagan (ms. P2 has instead: Iddin-Dagan), ruled for (mss. L1+N1, P2, P5 have:) 11 years. Ur-Ninurta (mss. L1+N1, P2 add:) , the son of Ickur -- may he have years of abundance, a good reign, and a sweet life -- ruled for (ms. P5 has:) 28 years. Bur-Suen, the son of Ur-Ninurta, ruled for 21 years. Lipit-Enlil, the son of Bur-Suen, ruled for 5 years. Erra-imitti ruled for 8 (mss. P5, TL have instead: 7) years. (ms. P5 adds:) ...... ruled for ...... 6 months. Enlil-bani ruled for 24 years. Zambiya ruled for 3 years. Iter-pica ruled for 4 years. Ur-dul-kuga ruled for 4 years. Suen-magir ruled for 11 years. (ms. P5 adds:) Damiq-ilicu, the son of Suen-magir, ruled for 23 years. 14 kings; they ruled for 203 years (ms. P5 has instead: 225 years and 6 months).

(Mss. P2+L2, L1+N1 and P4+Ha conclude with a summary of the post-diluvian dynasties; the translation of ll. 378-431 uses numerical data from each mss. but follows the wording of P2+L2 and L1+N1)

378-431A total of 39 kings ruled for 14409 + X years, 3 months and 3 1/2 days, 4 times in Kic. A total of 22 kings ruled for 2610 + X years, 6 months and 15 days, 5 times in Unug. A total of 12 kings ruled for 396 years, 3 times in Urim. A total of 3 kings ruled for 356 years, once in Awan. A total of 1 king ruled for 420 years, once in Hamazi.

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A total of 12 (?) kings ruled for 197 (?) years, once in Agade. A total of 21 (ms. P4+Ha has instead: 23) kings ruled for 125 years and 40 days (ms. P4+Ha has instead: 99 years), once in the army of Gutium. A total of 11 (ms. P4+Ha has instead: 16) kings ruled for 159 (ms. P4+Ha has instead: 226) years, once in Isin. There are 11 cities, cities in which the kingship was exercised. A total of 134 (ms. P4+Ha has instead: 139) kings, who altogether ruled for 28876 + X (ms. P4+Ha has instead: 3443 + X) years. 21.

 

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